Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the most common infections with clinical characterization being in many cases difficult as they can be asymptomatic but also their isolation using standard methods difficult. Since untreated infections with these pathogens can in time lead to serious consequences, PCR analysis can unveil with high sensitivity and specificity the cause of an infection.
There are over 30 different sexual transmitted bacteria, viruses and parasites therefore a screening panel might be recommended. Eight of these pathogens are linked to the greatest incidence of sexually transmitted disease of whcich 4 are currently curable: syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis.
The other 4 are viral infections which are incurable but require imidiate addention: hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus (HSV or herpes), HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV).
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiological factor for more than 99% of cervical cancers worldwide, and has over 200 genotypes, some of which are spread through sexual intercourse. Sexually transmitted HPV types fall into two groups, low risk and high risk. Low-risk HPVs mostly cause no disease while certain types of HPV that includs types 16 and 18 are considered high risk as they increase risk to develop cervical cancer.
PCR screening can identify HPV at early stages. As this virus can put you at high risk of cervical cancer, early detection can allow you and your doctor to respond fast.
Close monitoring can prognose cervical changes that lead to cancer that usually takes several years — often 10 years or more — to develop. For these reasons, you might follow a course of watchful waiting instead of undergoing treatment immediately.
There are several assays to choose from, such as screening for high risk types to performing genotyping HPV analysis.
Standard HPV Panel by RT-PCR Analysis:
High Risk genotypes 16 and 18 and screening for 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68
Extended HPV Panel by RT-PCR Melting Curve Analysis for 40 Genotypes:
High-risk genotypes (20 genotypes) 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 69, 70, 73, and 82
Low-risk genotypes (2 genotypes) 6 and 11
Other genotypes (detection only, 18 genotypes) 30, 32, 34, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 55, 61, 62, 67, 74, 81, 83, 84, 87,and 90
Specimen type: Female - Vaginalswab
Male - Urine or Urethral Swab
Sexual Transmitted disease panels:
Sexual transmitted infections (STIs) represents a group of diseases that affect the sexual and reproductive health caused by different etiological agents fungi, bacteria, parasites and viruses.
A molecular PCR test has been developed to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity for the intended target DNA that aim to aid in the diagnosis of STDs.
Our panel, using a single multiplex PCR assay identifies and differentiates seven common STI bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis, in clinical samples from patients with signs and symptoms of STDs.
While the extended panel includes also Haemophilus ducreyi, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans (common yeast infection), Treponema pallidum and Genital herpes virus (HSV 1 & 2).
Standard STD Panel by RT-PCR Analysis:
Extended STD Panel by RT-PCR Melting Curve Analysis:
Specimen Type :
Female -Vaginalswab sample
Male - Urine /Urethral swab sample
HIV and often HBV infection require lifelong treatment, HCV infection can be treated within few weeks. Therefore, it is critical to test and diagnose people as soon as possible in the course of the infection as these infections can typically be asymptomatic for years.
Using a multiplex test assay a single PCR analysis can screen for all three viruses.
Early diagnosis of HBV, HCV or HIV is vital as it allows people to request immediate treatment, which reduces long-term morbidity and mortality rates. Effective treatment can eliminates or suppresses the viruses, which in turn prevents onward transmission – a benefit known as ’treatment as prevention’. It must be mentioned that those at risk of one of these infections are also more vulnerable to infection with one or both of the other viruses, making the argument for integrated testing even stronger.